E. These different types of accumulation are applicable in trade between the EU and Ceuta and Melilla, in accordance with Regulation 82/2001, but, according to the rules of origin of preferential regimes established by the EU with third countries, they also apply to trade with these third countries and Ceuta and Melilla (see JO L 347 of 31.12.2001, p. 1). A preferential trade zone (including preferential trade agreements, PTA) is a trading bloc that offers preferential access to certain products from participating countries. This requires a reduction in tariffs, but not in their total abolition. A ZEP can be implemented through a trade pact. This is the first step in economic integration. The border between a EPZ and a Free Trade Area (EEA) can be blurred, as almost all ATPs have the main objective of becoming a free trade agreement in accordance with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Protocol 1OJ L43, 06.06.2009 Cumulative Protocol 3 (Decision 3/2006 of the EC-Turkey Association Council), 19 December 2006 amending Protocol 3 of Decision 1/98 of the EC-Turkey Association Council of 25 February 1998 on the trade regime in the agricultural sector). Bilateral and diagonal accumulation The TPP comprises twelve Member States: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States and Vietnam, as shown on the map below.
The TPP will cover 40% of global GDP2 and 33% of world trade. – Agricultural Products (01.01.1998) Decision on Agricultural Trade, JO L 347 of 29.11.1998 JO L 86, 20.3.1998, p. 1. Given the recent proliferation of bilateral TTPs and the emergence of mega-PTAs (broad regional trade agreements such as the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) or the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a global trading system managed exclusively under the WTO now seems unrealistic and the interactions between trade systems must be taken into account. The increasing complexity of the international trading system resulting from the proliferation of EPZs should be taken into account when considering the choice of countries or regions used by countries or regions to promote their trade relations and environmental agendas.  ATPs have grown rapidly; In the 1990s, there were just over 100 PTAs. In 2014, there were more than 700.  A customs union (UC) is a free trade agreement in which members apply a common external tariff plan (ETC) to imports of non-members. Preferential trade agreements are concluded between countries to promote international trade and provide advantageous access to partner countries.
These preferential regimes allow foreign customers to pay a tariff of less or none on the import of the products. To benefit from this, proof of origin is required and each preferential regime is accompanied by a specific model. Since the beginning of the 20th century, several hundred bilateral THPs have been signed. The Canada Research Chair in International Political Economy`s TREND project lists approximately 700 trade agreements, the vast majority of which are bilateral.  A free trade agreement is a preferential regime in which members reduce tariffs on trade between them while maintaining their own tariffs on trade with non-members. An EPI allows countries to trade with a small number of goods, making the volume minimal. Bosnia and Herzegovina (01.07.2008): Interim Agreement on Trade and Accompanying Measures, JO L 199 of 19.12.2008 and Bull. JO L 169, 30.6.2008 , p.
13.; in the last by the Olympics. L 233, amended, 30.8.2008, p. 6 Switzerland- Manufactured goods (01.01.1973) Free Trade Agreement, JO L 233 of 29.12.2008, p. Agreement on Agricultural Trade (OJ L 300, 31.12.1972, p. 189) These tariff preferences have led to numerous departures from the principle of normal trade relations, namely that members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) should apply the same tariff to imports from other WTO members.  Preferential trade agreements (ATPs) or the Generalized Preference System (GSP) are a special status granted in trade by different countries.